START: Teesmouth National Nature Reserve, Hartlepool
FINISH: Hartlepool Headland, Hartlepool
DISTANCE: 7.8 miles
APPROXIMATE WALKING TIME: 3 hours
MAPS: OS Explorer 306
I completed this stretch of the coast in two separate walks. The first was on a very windy Sunday in August 2014 when me and my nephew walked from our home town of Billingham (yes someone has got to live there!) via the village of Greatham to the coast at North Gare. From there we walked a little further up the coast to finish at Seaton Carew. We had originally planned to walk into Hartlepool but due to Sunday transport not being great and the wind driving a heap of sand into our faces we gave up the ghost at Seaton Carew (although we did treat ourselves to an ice cream…which contained a lot of sand). We didn’t return to Seaton Carew until April 2015 to complete the walk where we also decided to continue further up the coast to the Headland.
This section of the coastwalk starts at the small car park at the Teesmouth National Nature Reserve just off the A178 and a stone’s throw away from the Hartlepool nuclear power station. Teesmouth is home to a 350 hectare National Nature Reserve split into two sections (North Gare to the north and Seal Sands to the south) by the power station and is surrounded by heavy industry. Don’t be put off by this description though as the scenery is still fantastic and there is a whole variety of wildlife which calls Teesmouth home. More than 20,000 waterfowl visit the reserve each year along with Common and Grey Seals (over 100 of them at last count which makes Teesmouth the only regular breeding ground of Common Seals on the North-East coast) and a variety of birds of prey including merlins and peregrine falcons. In addition to the animal life, Teesmouth is also home to a variety of plant life including marsh orchid. The area was used extensively for salt extraction in medieval times.
From the car park we walked through a gap into the sand dunes out on to North Gare sands. The tide was out a fair way so it was possible to walk along the sands towards the breakwater at North Gare, however if the tide was in there is a footpath through the dunes to the breakwater which we could have used. The views across the estuary are brilliant (no honestly they are!) despite the nearby industry. It was also possible to see a number of ships sailing to Teesport down the River Tees. Access to the tip of the breakwater (built between 1882 and 1892) was restricted (due to a partial collapse)so we continued along the coast onto Seaton Sands. There were a number of old anti-tank blocks leftover from the Second World War dotted along the sands and were a reminder of the long history of military defence associated with the area (and were also a bugger to walk around). In 1667 a gun fortification was built at Sneaton Snook to defend the mouth of the Tees, particularly against the marauding Dutch navy. Remains of the fortification can be still found today. The town was also the site of a RAF airstrip during the First World War.
The constant wind was blowing sand into our eyes so we made a point to stop the walk in Seaton Carew a half-mile later as we were also tired after walking all the way from Billingham.
Seaton Carew is a nice little resort located to the south of Hartlepool and is popular with local visitors (including myself as it is so accessible from where I live). The resort has recently benefitted from a £1.5 million scheme to improve the town’s coastal defences along with the re-development of the promenade which has brightened the place up a bit. A further major revamp of the seafront has been given the go ahead which is designed to bring more people to the town. Hopefully, if successful, this will reverse the decline Seaton Carew has suffered in recent decades as the investment in the town has just not been there. As a result the town’s seafront has become a little shabby which can put people off.
Seaton Carew became world-famous in 2007 thanks to the efforts of John Darwin and his missus, Anne Darwin. On March 21st 2002 John Darwin was reported missing by his wife after failing to return from a canoeing trip at Seaton Carew. His heavily damaged canoe was later found washed up on the town’s beach. A large scale searched was launched but his body was not found. Later a coroner recorded John Darwin as officially being dead and the world went on as normal believing that Mr Darwin had drowned off the North Sea coast. Not so. After reporting her husband as missing to the Police, Mrs Darwin had agreed to pick him up from a car park further up the beach and transport him to Durham train station so he could escape for a while.
Three weeks later, following lying to their two sons, Mrs Darwin picked up her now disguised husband (who was now sporting a straggly beard, walking with a limp, and wearing clothes from a charity shop) in Whitehaven, Cumbria and brought him back to live in a bedsit next to their home. In April 2003 a coroner in Hartlepool recorded an open verdict which allowed a death certificate for Mr Darwin to be issued. Following this Mrs Darwin was able to receive £228,000 in insurance policies and pensions which allowed her to pay off the couple’s debts (they had been facing bankruptcy at the time of Mr Darwin’s “death”).
In October 2003 Mr Darwin acquired a fake passport in the name of John Jones (the name of a baby who had died in infancy) and decided to make a new life for him and his wife in Panama. Selling off the family houses to the tune of £500,000 Mrs Darwin emigrated to Panama with her husband in October 2007 and together they set up an eco-tourism canoeing centre in the Panamanian countryside. However, their fiendish scheme wasn’t to last as in December of that year Mr Darwin flew back to the UK and presented himself at a Police station in London. Claiming to be suffering from amnesia he told the officers there “I think I am a missing person”. His amnesia claim was not believed and three days later he was arrested for fraud. Meanwhile in Panama journalists tracked down Mrs Darwin and she was forced to admit she knew that her husband was alive when journalists showed a date-stamped photo taken in 2006 of her and husband at a Panamanian estate agents. The couple were jailed for fraud and money laundering in July 2008 with Mrs Darwin being sentenced to serve six-and-a-half years and her husband being jailed for six years and three months. However, both were released in 2011.
Some of the local residents were quite proud of their town’s link to the deceitful crime (admittedly the majority weren’t). As the story became globally famous a practical joker erected a sign next to the main road into the resort which ‘honoured’ the town’s most famous canoeist. The sign read “Welcome to Seaton Canoe: Twinned with Panama”. Despite the popularity of the sign, a Council spokesman stated that the town had no plans to twin with Panama at the time. Shame really.
A LITTLE HISTORY OF SEATON CAREW
The history of Seaton Carew dates back to Roman times with remains of Roman buildings and artefacts being found on Seaton Sands. During the 12th Century the settlement passed into the hands of Robert De Carrowe resulting in the village being called ‘Seaton Carrowe’. Over time this has changed to the present-day ‘Seaton Carew’.
During medieval times salt was extracted from seawater and the resulting ash produced from the fuel used to remove the salt was dumped on North Gare forming a series of grass-covered mounds now located on the town’s Golf Course. A small priory was established in Seaton Carew although no trace of this building has been found.
For most of the village’s history the inhabitants were mainly employed in fishing, agriculture and salt extraction and little changed over the centuries. However, like many nearby local towns such as Saltburn and Redcar, the arrival of tourists to the settlement soon changed the fortunes of Seaton Carew forever. In the late 18th and 19th Century Seaton Carew became a popular holiday destination for wealthy Quaker families from Darlington. Following the arrival of the railway in the 1840s the developing resort became even more popular with day trippers from Teesside and County Durham resulting in the village expanding to accommodate the extra holidaymakers.
From 1916-1919 there was a small RAF airstrip located to the south of Seaton Carew and 24 seaplanes were kept in Seaton Channel. These planes were charged with the defence of the North East and Yorkshire coast and were called into action several times during the First World War.
Although it does remain popular with day trippers, in recent decades the resort has seen somewhat of a decline due to the advent of package holidays abroad. As a result the town has taken on a bit of a shabby appearance like many traditional seaside resorts up and down the coast. Hopefully if the regeneration scheme mentioned above is successful the fortunes of Seaton Carew will change for the better once again.
On our return to Seaton Carew in April 2015 the weather was much more calmer and it was also good to note that there were no abandoned canoes lying about. We set off walking along the promenade wedged in between the beach and the main road which links the town with Hartlepool. We noticed signs for the new England Coast Path National Trail which by 2020 (it is hoped) will cover the whole coastline of England (some 2,795 miles). This section between North Gare and Sunderland had recently been opened.
There were fantastic views up and down the coast where we could clearly see our destination at Hartlepool Headland sticking out into the sea to the North and the smoking factory chimneys of industrial Teesside and the huge cliffs of Huntcliff Nab at Saltburn to the South. There were plenty of people enjoying the nice weather and the views and absolutely no-one was attempting to fake their own deaths.
This part of the coast between Seaton Carew and Hartlepool is marked by the remains of an ancient submerged forest. In Mesolithic times (around 8000 BC) much of what is now the North Sea was low lying fenland and during this time this area was covered with trees and peat bog. As sea levels rose over time these forests eventually became submerged, however during low tide the ancient peaty soil which is all that remains of the ancient forest are exposed. Animal bones including deer and wild boar have been discovered here along with flint tools and lines of wooden stakes suggesting that humans have been using this area for thousands of years.
After a couple of miles we had to come in off the coast a little as new housing has been built which blocks access to the coastline. We walked along Maritime Avenue before taking a right onto Fleet Avenue and then a left onto Slake Avenue where we came out onto Hartlepool Marina. Across the Marina we could make out rising above the dozens of boats the tall masts of the HMS Trimconalee . The HMS Trimconalee is Britain’s oldest floating warship and resides in the Hartlepool Maritime’s Experience museum. Built in 1817 in Mumbai, India the historic ship saw action in the Caribbean, having been used to quell riots in Haiti and to stop an invasion of Cuba. Later the ship was used to destroy Russian ships in the Northern Pacific during the Crimean War. Following her active service, the Trimconalee was used as a training ship in Sunderland in 1861, then in West Hartlepool in 1862, before being moved to Southampton in 1877. The ship was sold to a Portsmouth-based scrap merchant twenty years later, however it was saved from destruction when Mr Wheatly Cobb purchased the ship to replace one he had lost during a storm off the coast of Blackpool and was renamed the TS Foudroyant (the name of the ship that had sunk at Blackpool). The ship continued to be used as a training vessel and moved to Falmouth in 1902 before later relocated to Milford Haven and then Portsmouth where it was used as a storage and training ship during the Second World War. The Foudroyant continued to be used as a training vessel until 1986 ,after 169 years service, when it was moved to Hartlepool to undergo restoration. Over the next 15 years the ship was restored (and renamed the Trimconalee) to its former glory and around 65% of the vessel is still original. Looking across the Marina we could also see the tall chimney of the PS Wingfield Castle, a former ferry on the Humber estuary built in 1934. Decommissioned forty years later she now resides at Hartlepool’s Maritime Experience along with the Trimconalee.
We continued around the Marina where we crossed a lock that allowed boats into the Marina itself. There was a little statue of a monkey on a pole attached to the lock which allowed people to throw money into a bowl resting in the monkey’s outstretched arms. For those of you not from the local area there is a good reason why there is a monkey located in Hartlepool Marina (no really there is!) According to legend on a cold, stormy December day during the Napoleonic Wars, the good people of Hartlepool could see a French vessel struggling in the storm off the coast of the Headland. The ship was severely damaged by the severe stormy gales (or normal weather as it’s called in Hartlepool) and sank with lots of wreckage washing up on the shore. Not wanting to miss out on a free bit of loot, the Hartlepudlians scrambled to the beach to find among the wreckage a very wet and very hairy survivor. Dressed in a military style uniform to amuse the crew was the ship’s pet monkey. Apparently not being familiar with what a Frenchman looked like the folk of Hartlepool held a quick trial on the beach believing that the monkey was in fact a French spy. Due to the fact that the monkey didn’t understand a word of English (obviously because he was French) he couldn’t answer any of the questions asked of him and he was sentenced to death and hung from a nearby fishing boat. As a result of this bit of farcial injustice the inhabitants of Hartlepool have become known rather derogatorily known as “monkey hangers”. However, over time the local people have come to embrace this term to the extent that the mascot of Hartlepool United Football Club is called H’Angus the Monkey. In a further comic twist in 2002 the people of Hartlepool elected H’Angus to become the town’s mayor on the basis of his campaign slogan “Free bananas for school children”. H’Angus (or Stuart Drummond to give him his proper name) obviously was a good mayor as he was re-elected on two further occasions becoming the first British elected mayor to serve three terms.
A LITTLE HISTORY OF (WEST) HARTLEPOOL)
Until 1967 Hartlepool was in fact two separate towns – ancient Old Hartlepool situated on the Headland, and Victorian-built West Hartlepool located to the southwest of Old Hartlepool. As a result I’m going to split up the history of Hartlepool into two sections – first up West Hartlepool as this was the first part of Hartlepool I visited on this walk.
At the beginning of the 19th century the port at Old Hartlepool had been in a long period of decline from its heady days in the Middle Ages. To save it from ceasing to exist altogether it was decided that more trade needed to be brought into the town, therefore in 1823 the town council and the Board of Trade agreed that a railway should be built to connect the town with collieries in County Durham so that Hartlepool could be developed as a coal port. Mr Christopher of Tennant of Yarm was one of the main parties involved in the development of the railways and docks at Old Hartlepool and he established the Hartlepool Dock and Railway Company (HD&RC) in 1831. Mr Tennant opened up another railway line which transported coal from the collieries in County Durham to a brand new port on the River Tees at Samphire Batts (soon renamed Port Clarence) a few miles upstream from Stockton-On-Tees. Port Clarence (and Stockton-On-Tees) were poorly located for coal shipments due to the difficulty in navigating the meandering river. Indeed it sometimes took just as long for a ship to make its way from Stockton to Teesmouth (about 14 miles) as it did for the ship to sail from Teesmouth down to London (300 plus miles). As a result the new railway line began to lose money so Mr Tennant had the idea to extend the railway to the more convenient port at Hartlepool under the guise of the Stockton and Hartlepool Railway Company (S&HRC).
Unfortunately Mr Tennant never saw his plan come to fruition as he died in September 1839 and the line wasn’t completed until February 1841. Meanwhile, after much difficulty, the new Harbour at Hartlepool had opened in 1835 and in 1840 the first of Hartlepool’s docks – Victoria Dock – was opened. By 1850 eighteen collieries were shipping their coal from Hartlepool. Following the death of Mr Tennant, the S&HRC was taken over by Mr Ralph Ward Jackson who soon became frustrated with the HR&DC for restricting access to the Victoria Dock by charging too much money to use their railway line. As a result, Mr Ward Jackson established the West Hartlepool Dock Company (WHDC) with work beginning on a new harbour and dock to the south west of the old town in 1845. Along with the new harbour Mr Ward Jackson also set about building a new town to house the hundreds of new workers that began to flock to the area. He called it West Hartlepool. The new harbour (called West Harbour) and Coal Dock opened on the 1st June 1847 and the railway line from Billingham to Hartlepool was cut off and diverted to the new docks. Mr Ward Jackson also encouraged businessmen to set up in the new town and soon a shipbuilder (Irvine and Pile) and a timber yard and sawmill (Lauder’s) called West Hartlepool home. Due to the success of the new Harbour at shipping coal from Harbour the new town soon began to swell in size
The Coal Dock soon became too small for the heavy traffic that used it and two further Docks were built at West Hartlepool. The first Jackson Dock opened on 1st June 1852 -the same day as the Leeds Northern Railway which connected West Hartlepool with new markets in Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool allowing coal and wool to be shipped to West Hartlepool and fresh fish to be shipped from West Hartlepool to the great industrial cities of the North. This in turn resulted in another growth spurt in the town which allowed for another dock – Swainson Dock – to be opened in 1856.
Mr Ward Jackson was responsible for the layout of West Hartlepool, developing the town’s new public buildings. He was also involved in the education and welfare of the new town’s inhabitants. By 1881 West Hartlepool’s population had grown to 28,000. The new docks also benefitted the old town with Old Hartlepool’s population swelling to 12,361 by 1881, up from 993 at the beginning of the 19th Century. By 1900 the population of West Hartlepool had reached 63,000 and the two Hartlepool’s ports together were one of the fourth busiest ports in the country.
Shipbuilding was a very important part of both Hartlepool’s economy. The West Hartlepool-based William Gray & Co shipyard achieved the distinction of launching the largest tonnage of ships of any shipyard in the world on a number of occasions. By 1913, there were 43 ship-owning companies located in West Hartlepool and Old Hartlepool, and combined with other heavy industry in the two towns, made it a target for Germany in both the First World War (which I’ll talk about later) and the Second World War.
Following the end of the Second World War the town’s shipbuilding industry went into severe decline with the last ship to be built in Hartlepool, the Blanchland, being launched in 1961. By 1967 both Old Hartlepool and West Hartlepool had merged together and the town was now known as Hartlepool. In 1977 the town was dealt a further blow when British Steel announced the closure of its steelworks at Hartlepool with the lost of 1500 jobs. Like many industrial towns in the North East, Hartlepool suffered severe unemployment (up to 30% of the town’s working population) during the 1980s as more industries closed and over 10,000 Hartlepudlians found themselves out of jobs, resulting in the town suffering from urban decay and high levels of crime.
Fortunately Hartlepool has undergone somewhat of a rebound since the dark days of the 1980s. Areas of the town which were blighted by urban decay have been renovated and new industries (Hartlepool Nuclear Power Station opened in 1983 emplyoys1% of the town’s workforce) combined with the resurgence of traditional industries (such as PD Ports operating at Hartlepool Dock – the old Victoria Dock) have reversed the trend of economic decline. The £60 million re-development of the Marina (based around the old Jackson Dock and Coal Dock) has attracted new businesses to the town.
After viewing the monkey we passed a row of shops and restaurants before walking round the top end of the Marina and out on to Marina Way. I will admit that the next couple of miles to the Headland is not the most visually rewarding. After exiting the Marina we basically followed the footpath next to the busy A179 and A1048 and with trees lining most of the route there wasn’t much to see apart from the constant traffic, so I would say that it will be probably be best if you just close your eyes whilst walking this bit as you wouldn’t miss much. The only interesting bit about this walk is that it marked the transition from West Hartlepool to Old Hartlepool.
Following a couple of miles of mind-numbing tedious walking we came at last to a stone pillar with a sign saying ‘Welcome to the Headland: Ancient Borough of Hartlepool’. Rounding a bend in the road we passed next to an embankment which carried the old railway line over the road to the docks. The bridge was well known by the locals as the ‘border’ between the Headland (Old Hartlepool) and West Hartlepool. Next to the embankment was the old Throston Engine House (right) which dates back to 1830 and was used to draw coal wagons up the railway incline and on to the coal staithes. A dispute over access to the coal-shipping facilities at the Headland by railway companies led to the founding of a new town – West Hartlepool – in 1840 when West Harbour was built in order to bypass the use of the Engine House and the new town of West Hartlepool was built.
After the old Engine House we followed the road (Northgate) to the right and we soon passed a large red-bricked building (see left). Dating back to 1904 this building used to be Old Hartlepool’s public library. In later years it became a Maritime Museum and is now used by Hartlepool Council as office space. The building was once earmarked for demolition but fortunately the people of Hartlepool stepped in and saved it.
We followed Northgate right into the heart of the Headland where we came to the scenic Town Square which gave grand views of the Borough Hall and ancient St Hilda’s Church (below). Opened on 4th October 1866, the large Borough Hall once housed a police station, the local Council’s chamber and a magistrates chamber, in addition to some accommodation. Over time the Borough Hall has been adapted to accommodate new uses such as a skating rink in 1909 and a dance hall in 1926 which is still in use to this day. Nowadays the Hall is used as an entertainment venue.
The present church of St. Hilda dates back to the 13th Century (built as a burial place for Norman De Brus whose family owned a lot of land in the area), however the site has been used as a religious centre since 640AD when an Anglo-Saxon monastery was established by St Aidan for both men and women.
We followed Northgate a little further until we reached the coast and the remains of the old Town Wall. Built in the 14th Century the town walls were constructed to fortify and protect the medieval port of Hartlepool from Scottish raiders as the town was developed by the De Brus family to be the chief seaport of the Bishopric of Durham. In 1315 King Robert I raided the town following his victory at the Battle of Bannockburn the previous year over King Edward I and the evil English. The town had been taken away from the De Brus family when King Robert became King of the Scots and perhaps he was anxious to get it back. Some parts of the old town wall still exist including the Sandwell Gate located on the seafront.
A LITTLE HISTORY OF OLD HARTLEPOOL
It is believed that during prehistoric times the Headland was an isolated tidal island covered in thick forest. During the 19th Century an excavation was carried out on a marshy area known as The Slake (located to the west of Victoria Dock which has subsequently been drained and built upon) and several ancient tree trucks were found embedded in the clay along with deer antlers and teeth. This forest was still in place in the 13th Century which could be why the original Anglo-Saxon settlement on the Headland was called ‘Heruteu’ meaning ‘the Isle of the Hart’ (which is why the Stag (Hart) is used as a symbol of Hartlepool). This could be a reference to the stag’s head shape of the Headland or perhaps because the forest was full of deer who used the bay as a drinking pool.
Heretu later became known as Hart or Hartness and became the name of a district centred on the Headland which also included the nearby villages of Hart and Billingham. To distinguish the Headland from the village of Hart the word ‘pool’ was added referencing the sheltered bay next to the Headland. The bay was used as a harbour around which the port of Hartlepool would form over the following centuries.
The Headland was the site of the a monastery associated with St. Hilda. Built in 640AD the monastery’s first abbess was an Irish princess called Hieu which some believe gave rise to the name Heugh, the name of the Headland. A small fishing village subsequently was founded next to the monastery. Hieu was succeeded by St. Hilda in 649AD who remained at Hartlepool for another eight years before leaving to establish a monastery at Whitby (she was probably attracted by the better fish and chips in Whitby). Over time the monastery at Hartlepool declined in importance until it was abandoned in the 9th Century. Eventually the site was used in the 13th Century to build the present church of St. Hilda.
Despite the abandonment of the monastery, from the start of the Norman period the town began to prosper under the De Brus family who ordered the construction of the town’s first docks and quayside, allowing Hartlepool to develop as the primary port for the Bishopric of Durham. The town gained a Charter from King John in 1201 which allowed it to host a market which brought trade and money to the town and also raised the status of the port even further.
The 14th Century brought a period of massive change for Hartlepool following raids by the Scots in 1315 and the Black Plague in 1348 which killed of the majority of the town’s population and trade. As a result Newcastle became the region’s primary port. By the reign of the Tudors Hartlepool was primarily a fishing port and remained so up until the 18th Century.
In the 16th and 17th Centuries Hartlepool became recognised for its strategic importance throughout the various upheavals and uprisings that occurred during this time. During the Rising of the North in 1659 the Spanish ambassador had requested northern rebels capture the town so that troops from the Netherlands could be landed to support the uprising. In response to this plan the Earl of Sussex ordered that a garrison of 200 men be sent to Hartlepool to stop this from happening, however the order was not obeyed and the rebels under the leadership of Lord Neville captured the town instead. Hartlepool’s part in the Rising did not last long as support from the Spanish and the Dutch never materialised and on the 17th December 1659 a Royal ship fired upon the rebels and a few days later the rebels fled on hearing of the approach of the Royal army. During the English Civil War Hartlepool also managed to find itself occupied by a Scottish army fighting on the side of the Parliament against the King.
By the 18th Century the port at Hartlepool had fallen into considerable decline and the harbour itself was in dire need of repair. In the early 19th Century the harbour was enclosed for agricultural purposes and corn was grown on The Slake. In 1813 a petition was made by the townspeople asking for the harbour to be returned to its original use. Fortunately the powers that be agreed that the enclosure should be reversed and the harbour was re-opened. Ten years later the townspeople campaigned for a railway to be brought to the to town which soon arrived in 1831 (see West Hartlepool) and the rest, as they say, is history.
We ambled along the Old Town Wall for a bit stopping to rest on the little beach that exists on the Headland. We watched a ship as it left Victoria Harbour and headed out into the North Sea, repeating a process which will have occurred thousands upon thousands of times over the centuries. After a little break we climbed back up the steps that led onto the Town Wall and continued on our way following the coast round the Headland. We soon passed a little statue dedicated to the comic strip character Andy Capp (see below) as the creator of the comic strip Reg Smythe was from Hartlepool, with the character supposedly being based on Smythe’s father who was an unemployed ship worker.
A little further on due to the tide being out we noticed that there was a large semi-circle of stones down below us on the shore. A handy sign notified us that these stones were the remains of an open-air swimming pool which was opened in 1923 but was destroyed by a storm in January 1953 and never repaired.
We soon came to the end of the walk at the Heugh Lighthouse. There have been three lighthouses located here or nearby over time. The first lighthouse was built in 1847 to provide a safe passage to the new harbour at West Hartlepool as previously there was inadequate lighting on this part of the coast. The first lighthouse was demolished in 1915 following the raid by the German Navy on Hartlepool the previous year as it was realised that the tower obstructed the line of sight of the guns at the Heugh Battery nearby. A temporary tower was constructed on a wooden lattice on the nearby Town Moor so that ships could still find their way into Hartlepool without crashing into the Headland which would have upset everybody a little bit. The current lighthouse was built in 1927 a little further along from the site of the old tower so as not to obstruct the guns at the Battery.
Next to the lighthouse is the Heugh Gun Battery, now open as a museum. The battery along with two others located in the town was conceived to protect Hartlepool and its port from enemy attack following the Napoleonic Wars. In 1859 a more substantial battery was built and over the next few decades the guns were replaced regularly with heavier and more accurate guns as technology progressed.
The Battery was heavily involved in the German raid on the town which occurred in December 1914. On the morning of the 16th two German battle cruisers (Seydlitz and Molker) and one heavy cruiser (Blucher) led by Vice Admiral Hipper descended on the town. They were part of a larger battle group which had left their base in Germany the night before to raid the Yorkshire coast. The remainder of the group had sailed further south to raid the town of Scarborough. Both Hartlepool and Scarborough were seen as legitimate targets as they were both fortified towns. The British navy were aware of this battle group and had made attempts to stop them in the North Sea but were unsuccessful.
At 8.10am the first shell was fired at the batteries and the lighthouse which took the inhabitants of Hartlepool completely by surprise. Even though the First World War had broke out several months prior, the British public believed themselves to be safe due to the superior numbers and firepower of the British navy compared to that of their German counterparts. However, on this cold misty morning in December 1914, this was not the case as the people of Hartlepool found themselves to be the first British people to be in the line of enemy fire during a major conflict since the English Civil War. By 8.25am the German ships had closed further in on the town and the shelling intensified on the gun batteries and also the docks. Some of the shells had delayed fuses and because they were fired from such short range a number of them bounced off the batteries and into the town.
The batteries in the town returned fire, peppering the German ships with some 123 rounds and causing damage to the Blucher but unfortunately they were no match for the powerful German guns. For 45 minutes the town continued to be attacked with 1,150 shells being fired on the batteries and residential areas causing much damage and loss of life. 128 people lost their lives and hundreds more were wounded. The Headland area suffered the most damage as they were in the line of fire of the German ships. Several houses on Moor Terrace, Victoria Place and Cliff Terrace were completely destroyed. A plaque at the south-eastern edge of the Heugh Battery marks where the first shell landed and also where the first person to be killed on British soil during the war, Private Theo Jones, fell.
Fear of another attack forced many survivors to move further inland with their families and communities up and down the coast were at a heightened state of alert with notices being issued to warn people to stay indoors and not to travel unless they absolutely had to. The attack on Hartlepool had a positive effect on recruitment to the Armed Forces as 22,000 Hartlepudlians joine up to fight soon after and thousands more took up work in the town’s munitions factories and shipyards. The town was also noted for its fundraising efforts during the First World War and on three occasions won awards for raising the most money per person per head than any other place in the entire British empire. The town was so good at fundraising that it raised the equivalent in modern money of £545 million which I think is something that the present-day folk of Hartlepool should be immensely proud of.
http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/35029?category=59026 – Teesmouth National Nature Reserve leaflet.
http://teesvalleylocalaccessforum.co.uk/nature-reserves/hartlepool-reserves/115.html#!Teesmouth_Nature_Reserve – Teesmouth National Nature Reserve
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/jul/24/canoe.ukcrime1 – Guardian article about the John Darwin canoe case.
https://www.hartlepool.gov.uk/…/seaton_carew_spd_-_adopted_september_2015.pdf – Seaton Carew history
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seaton_Carew – Seaton Carew history
http://www.fengatesroad.com/chap05.htm – About the Zeppelin raid on West Hartlepool and Seaton Carew in 1916.
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/submerged-forest.asp – Hartlepool Submerged Forest
http://www.hms-trincomalee.co.uk – History of the HMS Trimconalee
http://www.englandsnortheast.co.uk/Hartlepool.html – History of Hartlepool
http://www.hhtandn.org/ – History of Hartlepool with lots of old photos.
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/westhartlepool.asp – History of West Hartlepool
http://www.teesarchaeology.com/downloads/documents/Hartlepool_Town_Wall_Leaflet_Final.pdf – Leaflet published by Tees Archaeology about the Old Town Wall
http://www.hhtandn.org/notes/14/history-of-the-docks-at-hartlepool – History of the docks at Hartlepool
http://www.stanlaundon.com/heruteu.html – History and old photos of Old Hartlepool
http://www.gethartlepoolactive.co.uk/bhhistory – Hartlepool Borough Hall
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heugh_lighthouse – History of Heugh Lifehouse
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/history_of_the_heugh_battery.asp – History of the Heugh Battery
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/bombardmentofhartlepool.asp – History of the German bombardment of Hartlepool
http://westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/photography-original/1934-the-bombardment-of-hartlepool-16-december-1914.html#sthash.bFMXc33V.zbNg0ye3.dpbs – History of the German bombardment of Hartlepool
http://westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/photography-original/1934-the-bombardment-of-hartlepool-16-december-1914.html#sthash.bFMXc33V.zbNg0ye3.dpbs – BBC article on the German bombardment with some photos of the damage caused to housing with images of the same houses 100 years later.
http://www.teesarchaeology.com/downloads/documents/Postersaxon.pdf – Tees Archaeology leaflet about Anglo-Saxon Hartlepool.
http://www.teesarchaeology.com/downloads/documents/Postermedieval.pdf – Tees Archaeology leaflet about Medieval Hartlepool.